The Dada movement was founded by Hugo Ball, a poet, and Emmy Hennings, a dancer, at Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich in 1915.


Their main aim was political protest and reaction against war and the butchery of WW1. They were also anti art of the Petit Bourgoise.

Later groups were formed in Berlin, Hannover, Cologne, Paris and New York



The next few posts will include the individual pieces of work that I produced to make my final montage on Key Developments in Visual Communication between 1915 and 1940. The first one is main image for Futurism.


The Futurists were founded in 1910, in Milan, by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. It was an artistic and social movement inspired by speed and the motor car, technology, youth, violence, patriotism and war. They were also supporters of Mussolini and Fascism. The Futurist manifesto was printed in Le Figaro newspaper at the time.


Not many posts lately because we have been busy silk-screen printing and have just begun new briefs. However, during my preparation for the infographic Key Developments in Visual Communication between 1915 and 1940, I was preparing an image depicting cubism and decided to cut a picture of Pablo Picasso and another of Georges Braque in half and join them together. The outcome was uncanny…


It was a perfect fit?

Well, what do you make of that?

I will be posting the complete infographic shortly.

Visit to Hereford Cathedral to view the Mappa Mundi

As a prelude to visiting the Cathedral we watched a film presented by Stephen Fry about the Gutenburg Press….

Johannes Gutenberg was born in Mainz, Germany in 1400. At that time all books were written by hand on velum and he recognised the need for a more efficient process. There were vineyards in the locality and so he probably based his design for a printing press on those that were used for extracting the juice from grapes. He also had to derive a letter set to go with it. By coincidence paper was being developed at the same time, to replace velum, which made the press viable.

After seeing the film we went to visit the Mappa Mundi permanent display in the grounds of Hereford Cathedral. Before this we were privileged to view old books in the library above the exhibition area, which has a collection of ancient books that were written by monks and nuns and then embellished with special characters by specialists. These characters indicated the beginning of new chapters (gospels).

A hand-written, embellished book of Psalms with side notes

In the middle ages most written works belonged and were produced by the church. Therefore, they had power through knowledge. Furthermore they were written in Latin which was the universal language at that time. The printed book opened up the path to knowledge to more unprivileged people.

An early printed book by William Morris

The Mappa Mundi was the largest map to be produced on a single piece of velum in about 1300. It described that world as it was known at that time.

Part of the exhibition included the chained library, where the books were secured because of their value.


Contexts and graphic design

We were asked to find three examples of graphic design in the library and then describe each one in as many contexts possible.

In May 2016 the co-op unveiled a new logo which was designed by studio North. This was a revival of the original classic clover-leaf design, Which first appeared in the late 1960s. And historical context was considered after researching the company’s visual history. The logo conveys trust, nature, and purity. One of the aims was to trigger nostalgic response from customers. Whilst it also suggests a modern brand of the future in the digital age.


The contexts in this example are historic, nostalgic, behavioural, social, commercial and loyalty.

My next choice was Tyrrell’s crisps. Their design was created by the company bigfish Similar to the co-op nostalgia is used to appeal to customers.

The photographic images are typical of the postwar period and the use of matt packaging material adds to the historic effect. At this time food was wholesome and shoppers were thrifty and so the brand conveys value for money with t a product that is made to traditional standards. There is also an element of humour which will appeal to young and old alike.

The choice of packaging, it’s thickness, feel and the strong colours plus the typeface all reinforce the historic/quality message.

Like the co-op, The contexts used are nostalgic, historic, behavioural and quality.

Because I am a fly fisherman I am inclined to buy gear that is technical, has a high performance, innovative and hardwearing. For these reasons, like many of my fishing colleagues, I am drawn towards Sage, a USA company, that produces the gear that satisfies my requirements.


The main context in this companies advertising is technological but there is also an element of fashion, comfort and certainly protection against the elements. You can also throw in nature and the great outdoors for good measure.

You could say that all three examples address a behavioural context  as well and in these cases I am one of the typical target customers!

In the sage website photos of  big landscapes with solitary, small figures give the feeling of adventure, whilst the choice of lettering and a few select words convey technology and innovation.

Contexts used include the spirit of adventure, technological, emotional, fashion, high quality and exclusiveness.